Destination Management

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TOU323 Destination Management
Project Charter and Plan
Project Title: Hawk On, Hawk Off – Old Culture to New Modernity
Prepared by: 2M5F (Group 2)
Name
Student ID
Role
(Zayle) Yee Ler Aunn
33843227
Project Manager
Claudia Nicole Chelliah
33877697
Assistant Manager/Secretary
Yan Song Ng
33724008
Experience Manager
Sin Zhen Wong
33682276
Public Relations and Marketing Communications Manager
Lim Zi Qi Zenn Laurentina
34062537
Yan Yuin Chin
33594015
Research Manager
Wan Jasma Zuraini Binti Wan Jalani
33730711
Risk Manager
Word Count: 1248
Table of Contents
1. Project Overview
1.1. Consultancy Introduction
Woking Hawksters began its journey in destination management in 2021, founded by seven aspiring millennials. Its vision is to be the top destination management consultancy in Singapore for hawkers and small-to-medium food and beverage enterprises through creative, sustainable plans. Woking Hawksters’ mission is to be a one-stop destinatiopln management consultancy through genuine connections with clients, ensuring their needs are met with utmost satisfaction. No client is too small or insignificant and service levels of highest quality are guaranteed. At Woking Hawksters, long-term sustainability is a top priority and economic success of the destination must not be at the expense of society, culture, and the environment.
1.2. Project Brief
Woking Hawksters aim to develop a strategic yet sustainable destination management plan for hawkers in Singapore’s Central Business District (CBD). This project, named Hawk On Hawk Off – Old Culture to New Modernity, seeks to augment the appeal of age-old hawkers who have been operating for the past fifty years. A detailed analysis of these hawkers’ micro and macro environments will reveal potential areas for development. These opportunities will be analysed before creative, relevant, and workable management plans and recommendations are proposed (refer to Appendix B for this project’s work breakdown structure).
1.3. Project Boundaries and Scope
This project shall encompass three hawker centres located in Singapore’s CBD – Amoy Street, Maxwell, and Tanjong Pagar Food Centres, specifically highlighting stalls that have been in operation since the last half-century, in the form of a food trail.
This project will take place over thirteen weeks from January to April 2021, and will be conducted with the assumption that the Covid-19 virus (World Health Organisation, 2021) will continue indefinitely and thereby, have in place destination management measures that comply with public health and safety measures such as social distancing.
1.4. Business Problem / Opportunity
Despite having been a part of Singapore prior independence (Kong, 2007), hawker centres are still in the tourist area life cycle’s (Butler, 1980) exploration stage. Tourists visit hawker centres for their unique and cultural traits (Henderson et al., 2012), yet their surrounding areas are largely unaffected by tourism as hawker centres are still primarily patronised by locals (Henderson et al., 2012). The come-and-go of tourists has minimal impact on the locals’ economic and socio-cultural aspects.
However, since Covid-19’s outbreak, hawker businesses have been hard-hit. Business has dipped drastically by 50% and many face challenges in going online (Loke & Awang, 2020). Those who have digitalised still face lowered revenue from commissions to third-party platforms (Yong, 2020).
Furthermore, there is fierce debate about the hawkers’ future, with many thinking it to be a sunset industry. Younger generations are disinterested to be hawkers and/or are not patronising them enough to achieve economic sustainability (Fang, 2015; Nim, 2015; Chew, 2020). Other concerns include the youngsters being unappreciative of hawkers’ work, their history and hard work put into a dish.
But not all is bleak. Singapore’s hawker culture had recently been inscribed as a UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity (Yong, 2020) and this opens up possibilities for hawker centres to shine in the tourism scene, as agreed by Seetoh (in Yong, 2020). This inscription also boosts the prestige of being a hawker, thereby attracting a new generation of youth hawkers.
1.5. Project Objectives
Given the above, this project’s objectives are to therefore spread greater awareness of hawker centres, their culture, and the hawkers’ stories to youngsters – specifically Generation Z, through an interactive yet environmentally-friendly food trail. Generation Z is defined by Pew Research Centre (2020) as those born after 1996. As this cohort will form customers of the future, another key objective of this project is to aid hawkers cope with Covid-19 by introducing a new, sustainable customer base. Finally, this plan hopes to help hawkers pass their traditions down to future generations by finding keen successors for the stalls.
1.6. Success Criteria
Hawk On Hawk Off – Old Culture to New Modernity’s success comprises four main criteria. The first being a heightened awareness of the hawker culture in Singapore and of age-old hawkers among Generation Z. This leads to the second criteria of increased visitation by this cohort to the highlighted hawkers, resulting in increased revenue and economic sustainability. Positive feedback from hawkers and participants alike regarding the trail forms the third criteria. The final criteria targets the hawkers’ long-term socio-cultural sustainability and involves finding successors for these stalls so that their culture, tradition, and food can be passed down for generations.
1.7. Project Client and Sponsor
Name
Organisation
Position
Dr. Eunice Tan
Murdoch University
Sponsor (Lecturer)
Mr. Yohei Okamoto
Murdoch University
Sponsor (Unit Coordinator)
Tanjong Pagar Market and Food Centre
NEA
Client
Maxwell Food Centre
Amoy Street Food Centre
Table 1: Project Client and Sponsor
1.8. Project Requirements
Items
Requirements
Project Charter & Plan (1000 words)
A clear business plan
Company profile, vision, scope, and mission
Project objectives and requirements
Pointing out different risks
Identifying different constraints and limitations
Progress Report (1000 words)
Review and update Project Plan and Charter
Reviewing timeline against Gantt Chart
Destination Strategic Management Plan (5000 words)
Review of Relevant Literature
In-depth and extensive destination analysis
Identifying challenges faced
Finalised strategic destination management plan
Presenting to sponsors/stakeholders
Table 2: Project Requirements
1.9. Project Plan and Deliverables
The trail map (Appendix A) shows the 3 hawker centres’ location, each distanced a maximum 10 minutes’ walk from the others. The trail map will come in physical and digital copies, while also containing information of the featured hawkers and centres.
A Hawker Passport will also be implemented on the trail map for participants to keep track of their progress and completion. At the end of the trail, participants may keep the map for memento.
An e-brochure will be produced and consumers can retrieve it via QR code, which will be disseminated in marketing collaterals. Physical copies will be printed for advertising on bus stops, billboards and in schools. The brochure will include the trail’s summary and contact details.
1.10. Major Stakeholders
Name/Group
Role/Interest
Contact
Mr Yohei Okamoto (Unit Coordinator)
Project Sponsor (Murdoch University)
[email protected]
Dr Eunice Tan (Lecturer)
[email protected]
Tanjong Pagar Market & Food Centre
Client
[email protected]
Maxwell Food Centre
Amoy Street Food Centre
National Environment Agency Hawker Centres Group
Government Department
[email protected] (Group Director) [email protected] (Personal Assistant)
National Heritage Board
Government Department
[email protected]
(Zayle) Yee Ler Auun
Project Manager
[email protected]
Claudia Nicole Chelliah
Assistant Manager / Secretary
[email protected]
Yan Song Ng
Experience Manager
[email protected]
Sin Zhen Wong
Public Relations / Marketing Communications Manager
[email protected]
Lim Zi Qi Zenn Laurentina
[email protected]
Yan Yuin Chin
Research Manager
[email protected]
Wan Jasma Zuraini Binti Wan Jalani
Risk Manager
[email protected]
Table 3: Major Stakeholders
2. Project Assurance
Risk management is crucial in project management due to the corporate world’s complex nature, which implicates high levels of risk and intricacy. Risk management acts as a stepping stone for projects to expand successfully (Zwikael & Ahn, 2011) as potential risks can affect a project’s financial, technological or environmental safety with long-term effects on its sustainability, efficiency and profitability (Kleindorfer & Saad, 2005).
Conducting risk assessment helps recognise risks and classify them to determine the significance of different dangers to a project (Hopkin, 2010). According to Doerry and Sibley (2015), the process of risk assessment entails five key steps: identifying risks, evaluating and analyzing risks, risk mitigation planning, implementing mitigation plans and tracking mitigations to ensure successful risk reduction.
2.1. Initial Project Risk Limits and Analysis
Risk Area
Likelihood
Risk Owner
Potential Impact
Risk Mitigation Strategy
Costs Risk
High
Woking Hawksters
Significant
Through the preparation of the project budget, sourcing for funding from donors, collaboration with non-profit organizations and financial institutions. Through cost assignment, all activities will be funded accordingly. In the case of any anomalies, necessary adjustments shall be made using the amount set aside as reserves.
Time Risk
High
Woking Hawksters
Significant
Team meetings, whether virtual or in-person should be agreed on at least a week in advance to respect the schedules of each team member. Timing of the project from its initial stages shall be emphasised on. Development of time management schedule shall be duly followed. Assignment of activities on a timely basis. Time allowance for activities that may require extra time to complete. Strict supervision to achieve deadlines. Any foresighted delays should be highlighted and resolved to ensure the project outcomes are not affected.
Resource Risk
Medium
Woking Hawksters
Moderate
Recruitment of competent and qualified team mates. Sourcing of funds from reliable sources.
Technology risks
High
Hawkers
Significant
Digital Literacy Training for the Hawkers to use online platforms to carry out their businesses. This training is necessary as it enables hawkers, especially the older generation to understand modern technology and upskill their businesses through digitalisation. The continuous review of these technological aspects helps to meet the goals of the organisation.
Health Risk
Moderate
Woking Hawksters and Hawkers
Significant
As much as possible, all necessary research for the project should be done at home and telecommunication should be carried out to minimise contact in public areas due to Covid-19 risks. While the community cases are low, we should not be complacent.
Table 4: Initial Risk Assessment
2.2. Reviews, Proposals and Reports Required
Reviews
Costs
Time schedules
Resources
Technological
Employee performance
Hawker performance
Communications and relationship with Hawkers
Document management
Proposals
Employees’ training and development
Additional funding in case of inadequacy
Customer touchpoint assessments
Hawker engagement
Reports
Risk assessment
Budgetary
Meeting minutes with hawkers and within the team
Employee performance evaluation
Customer / participant experience review
Table 5: Required Reviews, Proposals and Reports
3. Project Resources
3.1. Deadlines
The Gantt chart is widely used in project management (Geraldi & Lechter, 2012). It aids in timely planning, while giving a good prediction of future deadlines (Maylor, 2001). The preliminary Gantt chart for this project is as follows:
3.2. Effort Limits
Effort limit is the project’s maximum effort amount stated in the number of hours. Effort limits are calculated based on a project’s Return on Investments (Tate & Martin, 2010).
Effort in hours
Jan
Feb
Mar
Apr
Group Meetings
12
12
16
8
Marketing planning
20
20
16
16
Research and Analysis
30
30
15
10
Risk forecast
20
20
10
5
Risk assessment
10
15
15
15
Budgeting forecast
10
10
8
4
Gantt Chart management
6
4
4
4
Client Meeting
10
10
4
4
Editing and proofreading
3
3
3
3
Site visit and research
6
6
3

Literature reviews and secondary research
30
30
30
30
Effort Hours
157
161
124
99
Cumulative Effort Hours
157
318
442
541
Table 6: Projected Effort Limits
3.3. Budget Estimate
This project’s estimated budget are as follows:
Budget Estimate for Site Visits
Description
Qty. per Trip
Unit Rate (SGD)
Total (SGD)
Transportation
7
$4.00 (Round Trip)
$28.00
Meal
7
$5.00
$35.00
Drink
7
$2.00
$14.00
Miscellaneous Fees (Standby)
1
$50.00
$50.00
Thank You Gifts
1
$7.00
$7.00
Sub-Total:
$134.00
Number of Hawker Centres to visit
x 3
Total:
$402.00
Table 7: Budget Estimates
3.4. Project Limitations and Constraints
This project carries several limitations. Firstly, there is a limited time to implement the plan (i.e. 13 weeks). Woking Hawksters shall adhere to all deadlines and follow the drafted Gantt chart strictly to prevent overruns. Secondly, financial resources are limited. Hence, the team shall prevent incurring any additional expenses where possible and if required, induce additional funds after unanimous agreement. Thirdly, the team’s decision-making process may be hindered from different members’ opinions. The project manager shall call for a vote in such cases while also exploring compromise areas between opposing views. Lastly, as the project involves outdoor activity and social interaction, the government’s restrictions and regulations for Covid-19 applies. The team shall comply with the restrictions and ensure that the regulations set are not breached.
3.5. Teamwork and Guidelines
S/N
Rules for team collaboration
1
Share the responsibility of tasks.
2
Goals should be clearly set and defined.
3
Treat everyone with respect.
4
Play an equal role by completing each task on time and with quality.
5
Be on time for all meetings.
6
Confront issues directly and promptly.
7
Be open-minded during team discussions.
8
Reply and acknowledge the team chat group whenever concerned.
9
Seek help from the team if you are stuck or falling behind on your part.
10
Help each other improve their own performance through constructive criticism.
3.6. Roles and Responsibilities
Role
Name
Responsibilities
Project Manager
(Zayle) Yee Ler Aunn
Lead team members through step-by-step guidance Plan and conduct all meetings Responsible for the overall quality of the entire project
Assistant Manager/ Secretary
Claudia Nicole Chelliah
Record all meeting minutes Facilitates team movements Assists Project Manager in tasks
Experience Manager
Yan Song Ng
To implement and evaluate quality of final products To identify stakeholders
Public Relations and Marketing Communications Manager
Sin Zhen Wong
To manage all aspects of communication To promote the image and goal of the project
Lim Zi Qi Zenn Laurentina
Research Manager
Yan Yuin Chin
To compile qualitative and quantitative research To manage budgets and present findings
Risk Manager
Jill Shanker Binti Wan Jalani
To identify potential risks To implement contingency plans
4. References
Butler, R. W. (1980). The Concept Of A Tourist Area Cycle of Evolution: Implications For Management Of Resources. Canadian Geographer, XXIV(1), 5-12.
Chew, H. M. (2020, November 22). Does hawker culture have a future in Singapore? Yes, but perhaps not as we know it. Channel News Asia. Retrieved from https://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/singapore/hawker-centres-culture-future-singapore-unesco-heritage-13602202
Doerry, N., & Sibley, M. (2015). Monetizing risk and risk mitigation. Naval Engineers Journal, 127(3), 35-46.
Fang, J. (2015, October 29). Is Singapore’s hawker culture faltering? TODAY. Retrieved from https://www.todayonline.com/lifestyle/singapores-hawker-culture-faltering
Geraldi, J., & Lechter, T. (2012). Gantt charts revisited: A critical analysis of its roots and implications to the management of projects today. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business, 5(4), 578-594. doi:10.1108/17538371211268889
Government of Singapore. (2020). Singapore Government Directory | Hawker Centres Group. Retrieved January 29, 2021, from https://www.sgdi.gov.sg/ministries/mse/statutory-boards/nea/departments/hcg
Government of Singapore. (2020). SG Press Centre. Retrieved January 29, 2021, from https://www.sgdi.gov.sg/spokespersons/mse%24statutory-boards%24nea
Henderson, J. C., Ong, S. Y., Poon, P., & Xu, B. (2012). Hawker centres as tourist attractions: The case of Singapore. International Journal of Hospitality Management, 31(3), 849-855.
Hopkin, P. (2010). Fundamentals of risk management: Understanding, evaluating and implementing effective risk management. London: Kogan Page.
Kleindorfer, P. R., & Saad, G. H. (2005). Managing disruption risks in supply chains. Production and Operations Management, 14(1), 53-68. doi:10.1111/j.1937-5956.2005.tb00009.x
Kong, L. (2007). Singapore Hawker Centres: People, Places, Food. Singapore: National Environment Agency.
Loke, L., & Awang, N. (2020, February 22). ‘We’d try to endure’: Hawkers see business plunge by up to 50% due to Covid-19 outbreak. TODAY. Retrieved from https://www.todayonline.com/singapore/wed-try-endure-hawkers-see-business-plunge-50-due-covid-19-outbreak
Maylor, H. (2001). Beyond the gantt chart:: Project management moving on. European Management Journal, 19(1), 92-100. doi:10.1016/S0263-2373(00)00074-8
National Heritage Board. (2018). Hawker Culture in Singapore – Heritage Plan. Retrieved January 29, 2021, from https://www.oursgheritage.gov.sg/hawker-culture-in-singapore/
Nim, A. (2015, April 10). Don’t give up on hawker centres. The Business Times. Retrieved from https://www.businesstimes.com.sg/lifestyle/food-drink/dont-give-up-on-hawker-centres
Pew Research Centre. (2020). Generation Z. Retrieved January 20, 2021, from https://www.pewresearch.org/topics/generation-z/
Tate, K., & Martin, P. (2010). The project management memory jogger (2nd ed.). Salem, NH: GOAL/QPC.
World Health Organisation. (2021). Coronavirus. Retrieved January 20, 2021, from https://www.who.int/health-topics/coronavirus#tab=tab_1
Yong, C. (2020, April 26). University students launch website to help users order directly from hawkers during Covid-19 circuit breaker. The Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/website-helps-users-order-directly-from-hawkers
Yong, C. (2020, December 17). Singapore’s hawker culture added to Unesco list of intangible cultural heritage. The Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/singapores-hawker-culture-added-to-unesco-list-of-intangible-cultural-heritage
Yong, C. (2020, December 18). Hawkers hope to see more young people in the trade, more patrons. The Straits Times. Retrieved from https://www.straitstimes.com/singapore/hawkers-hope-to-see-more-young-people-in-the-trade-more-patrons
Zwikael, O., & Ahn, M. (2011). The effectiveness of risk management: An analysis of project risk planning across industries and countries. Risk Analysis, 31(1), 25-37. doi:10.1111/j.1539-6924.2010.01470.x
5. Appendix
Appendix A
Appendix A – Preliminary List of Hawkers
Amoy Street Food Centre
Amoy Street Fried Kway Teow (#01-01) Started in the 1960s
Coffee Break at Amoy (#02-78) Started in the 1930s
Hong Kee Beef Noodle (#01-42) Started in the 1950s
Ah Ter Teochew Fish Ball Noodles (#01-14) Started in the 1950s
Maxwell Food Centre
Tong Xin Ju Special Shanghai Tim-Sum (#01-92) Started in the 1970s
China Street Rickshaw Noodles (#01-87) Started in the 1940s
China Street Fritters (#01-64) Started in the 1950s
75 Peanuts Soup (#01-57) Started in the 1940s
Tanjong Pagar Food Centre (only established in 1977)
Rolina Traditional Hainanese Curry Puff (#02-15) Started in the 1960s
Rong Xing Yong Tau Foo (#02-04) Started in the 1980s
Teochew Satay Bee Hoon (#02-47) Started in the 1960s
Appendix B
Appendix C – Preliminary Trail Map
Figure 2: Preliminary Trail Map
Appendix D – SWOT Analysis
STRENGTHS
WEAKNESSES
Lavishness of food and heritage in a single food trial Appeal younger generation Environmentally friendly (Public transport highly-encouraged) Business boost to local hawkers Educate youths on local heritage and culture Encourage youths to take on Hawker businesses
Lack of tourism revenue Surrounding area does not reflect local “heritage” due to modernization
OPPORTUNITIES
THREATS
Uphold Singapore’s reputation on UNESCO hawker heritage Improvements on participant’s experience after reviews Improve of businesses for both hawkers and neighbouring hawkers
Social distancing might be potentially threatened due to the increasing popularity No next generation to inherit business (subjected to discontinuation) Overtourism in the future (After COVID) due to the increased popularity Humid weather or unsheltered areas might discourage visit to hawker centres

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