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Environmental impact of building new airports According to Graham (2014), Noise from aircraft as well as from traffic going to and from airports has traditionally been considered the most important environmental problem at airports. Building more airports will lead to an increase in noise pollution. In many cases, the noise is easily perceived and annoying, especially where this occurs frequently. Aircraft noise is created by both the engine and the airframe and is mostly manifested during landing and take-off as well as under frequently-used flight paths. Other sources of noise include noise generated from taxiing aircraft, the application of reverse-thrust which is an optional braking aid on landing, on-site vehicular traffic, and engine tests. The effects of noise pollution include: Sleep disturbance, Loss of concentration, Anger, Fear of accidents and of a potential increase in the frequency of noise, Cardiovascular effects, frustration and powerlessness to control the noise, Mental health, Diminished educational achievement as a result of either direct effect or loss of teaching time because of noise disruptions (Parliamentary Office of Science and Technology, 2003), Adverse effect on performance for instance in reading, problem-solving, attentiveness and memory, Continued or excessive exposure to noise can bring about hypertension and ischaemic heart disease, and Noise above 80dB may increase aggressive behaviorAirport noise can also have negative effects on children’s health and development. A study by Cohen, et. al., in 1980, studied the impact of aircraft noise on children’s health and found higher systolic and diastolic pressure in children living to close the Los Angeles airport when compared to those living further away. In 1995, Evans, et. al., discovered a relationship between chronic noise exposure in addition to elevated neuroendocrine and cardiovascular measures in those children living close to Munichs International Airport. Studies have also linked exposure to aircraft noise with deficits in learning. .
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