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I need 6 probing questions for each of my classmates discussion boards posts listed below. Each question should be 45 words per response. 1. Pamela The practical approach to authentic leadership “focuses on the characteristics of authentic leadership (AL)” (Northouse, 2019, p. 199). This approach posits that authentic leaders can develop the five central characteristics through life experiences. These characteristics are: purpose, values, relationships, self-disciple, and heartThe theoretical approach, on the other hand, frames “authentic leadership around the development processes of leader and follower self-awareness and self-regulation…(and) focuses on the core components of authentic leadership” (Northouse, 2019, p. 203). The theoretical approach includes the core components of self-awareness internalized moral perspectives, balance processing, and relational transparency. Despite a different approach to authentic leadership, the practical and theoretical approaches have similarities. From the practical approach, purpose, values, and relationships are like the theoretical approach’s self-awareness, internalized moral perspective, and relational transparency, respectively. The Authentic leader has a strong sense of purpose, they know who they are and where they are going. Under the theoretical approach, the authentic leader is self-aware and understands themselves. Authentic leaders have strong values; they know what the right thing is to do, this is similar to the theoretical approach of internalized moral perspective, giving an authentic leader a strong internal moral compass. An authentic leader is willing to be open and honest to help build relationships. The relational transparency component is also about being open and honest in an effort to build relationships.Authentic leadership resonates with me as I am naturally myself. Other than making sure my words are appropriate for the situation, I am who I am. Some of the earlier leadership styles would make me feel inauthentic if I tried to be someone other than who I am. I pride myself in presenting myself as myself, it feels honest, and honesty is one of my treasured values. However, being honest does not preclude the desire for improvement. I am passionately interested in learning and becoming my best self through the study of leadership. I am a person who wants to help and support others through my leadership. I want to make a difference; I want to be a good leader. I believe under authentic leadership all these components come together.To become an authentic leader, I believe there are two important strategies one can embrace. First, to be an authentic leader, one needs to know oneself and keep developing (George, Sims, McLean & Mayer). By reflecting on pivotal life events, the authentic leader increases their self-awareness (Gardner, Avolio, Luthans, May & Walumbwa, 2005). Reflecting on these moments helps the leader better understand their own core values and motivations (Boas & Eilam, 2005)The second strategy, from Gardner, et al (2005), is to “lead by example in fostering healthy ethical climates characterized by transparency, trust, integrity, and high moral standards” (p. 344). In this way, the authentic leader helps foster a trusting and ethical culture with followers and others in their organization.Boas, S., Eilam, G. (2005). “What’s your story?” A life-stories approach to authentic leadership development. The Leadership Quarterly 16(3), 395-417.Gardner, W. L., Avolio, B. J., Luthans, F., May, D. R., & Walumbwa, F. (2005). “Can you see the real me?” A self-based model of authentic leader and follower development. Leadership Quarterly, 16(3), 343–372. https://doi-org.libproxy.chapman.edu/10.1016/j.leaqua.2005.03.003George, B., Sims, P., McLean, A. N., & Mayer, D. (2007). Discovering Your Authentic Leadership. Harvard Business Review, 85(2), 129–138.Northouse, P. (2019). Leadership: Theory and practice (8th ed.). Sage Publications, Inc.2. Stephanie Authentic Leadership represents of the newer areas of leadership research and focuses on whether leadership is genuine or “real” (Northouse, 2019). This leadership style had two approaches, the practical approach, and the theoretical approach. The practical approach is derived from real life studies as well as training, while the authentic approach is done through social science research. AL is a pattern in leadership behavior that promotes positive psychological outcomes, such as an ethical climate, a higher self-awareness, and an internalized moral perspective (Ribeiro, Filipe & Torres de Oliveira, 2020).Practical Approach. Bill George suggests that there are five characteristics to finding your “True North” as a leader which are purpose, heart, self-discipline, and relationships. When speaking of values, Northouse (2019) states, when tested in different situations, authentic leaders do not compromise their values, but rather use those situations to strengthen their values. With building relationships, it is important for the authentic leader to open themselves up to genuine connects with people and build trust. Self-discipline, or emotional intelligence, gives leaders focus and determination (Northouse, 2019). This also allows the leader to remain calm in a crisis and give their followers a sense of security because they always know who they are dealing with. George, McLean, and Craig (2008) said they placed self-discipline at the center of the True North compass because it is the key to knowing who you are. Theoretical Approach. Fundamentally, authentic leadership comprises four factors, self-awareness, internalized moral perspectives, balanced processing, and relationship transparency (Northouse, 2019). It seems as if there is more literature on the practical approach vice the theoretical approach, as it seems it’s still somewhat forming, so it wasn’t as easy for me to research. The theory of authentic leadership is contemporary and emerges in response to the global economic and political turmoil at the turn of the century and is viewed as the basis of all positives forms of leadership. (Nikolic, Grudic, Sanda, & Grbic, 2020). To me, authentic leadership simply means being aware of who you are, know your shortcomings, and work on improving them. It also means having a high level of emotional intelligence and staying calm when issues arise. As far as your followers are concerned, it is unfair to them if they come to you with a situation and they don’t know what version of you they are going to get. Being authentic means being consistent in your interactions and building genuine relationships with your team members. One thing you can do is live your values every day and in every situation. It is important to be clear about your authentic values, leadership principles, and ethical boundaries so that you can put into practice when leading (George, et al., 2008.) Another important factor in being authentic is to integrate your life and let people in. I’ve met and dealt with leaders who were all business and closed off, which can make it difficult to make a connection and be motivated. To lead an integrated life is to bring together the major elements of your personal life and your professional life so that you can be the same person in all aspects of your life (George, et al., 2008).Bill George, Andrew McLean, & Nick Craig. (2008). Finding Your True North : A PersonalGuide. Jossey-BassNikolić, Gordana & Grudic Kvasic, Sanda & Grbic, Lucija. (2020). The Development ofAuthentic Leadership Theory.Northouse, Peter G. Leadership. SAGE Publications, 2019.Ribeiro, N., Duarte, A. P., Filipe, R., & Torres de Oliveira, R. (2020). How Authentic LeadershipPromotes Individual Creativity: The Mediating Role of Affective Commitment. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 27(2), 189–202. https://doi.org/10.1177/15480518198427963. Jack Compare and contrast the practical and theoretical approaches to Authentic Leadership identifying similarities and differences. Discuss what authentic leadership means to you, and describe two (2) strategies a leader can use for authenticity.“The journey to authentic leadership begins with understanding the story of your life. Your life story provides the context for your experiences, and through it, you can find the inspiration to make an impact in the world” (George, Sims, McClean, & Mayer, 2011). This is the best way to describe the practical approach of authentic leadership. This style of leadership is the newest in a long line of leadership theories. Authentic leadership is so new, “still in the formative phase of development” (Northouse, 2019). What we do know and understand is that there are two different approaches to authentic leadership. The practical approach, “evolved from real-life examples and training and development literature; and the theoretical approach, which is based on findings from social science research” (Northouse, 2019).The practical approach to authentic leadership has five basic characteristics. Authentic leaders, “(1) understand their purpose, (2) they have strong values about the right thing to do, (3) they establish trusting relationships with others, (4) they demonstrate self-discipline and act on their values, and (5) they are passionate about their mission” (Northouse, 2019). The theoretical approach to authentic leadership is slightly different in that the research identifies only four components. The four components are, “self-awareness, internalized moral perspective, balanced processing, and relational transparency” (Northouse, 2019). The difference between the two is that the practical approach focuses on what leaders should develop in order to become authentic, while the theoretical approach “describes what authentic leadership is and what accounts for it” (Northouse, 2019).Authentic leadership to me is a leader with a strong moral compass, whom is willing to learn from previous mistakes in order to make for a better leader in the future. An authentic leader strives hard to build and maintain relationships, and furthermore is a student of leadership. There are multiple strategies for becoming an authentic leader. First one can create good connections. “Authentic leaders have the capacity to open themselves up and establish a connection with others” (Northouse, 2019). This can be done by simply sharing stories with followers, and listening intently as well (Northouse, 2019). Another strategy would be to establish self-discipline to reach your goals and set a standard for others to follow.ReferencesGeorge, B., Sims, P., McClean, A. N., & Mayer, D. (2011). DISCOVERING YOUR AUTHENTIC LEADERSHIP. ASCA Newsletter, 2011(1), 8-17.Northouse, Peter Guy. (2019). Leadership: Theory and Practice. (8th ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE Publications4. Pamela Servant Leadership is a mindset, a way of being, that stems from the “deep desire to help others” (Spears, 2002, p. 3). The servant-leader is committed to “the personal and professional growth of employees above the financial objectives of the organization” (Schwarz, Newman, Cooper, and Eva, 2061, p. 1026). The servant-leader believes in helping others – “employees, customers, and community” (p. 4) – grow, succeed, and develop.Robert Greenleaf sees the great leader as servant first, ensuring the needs of others are met before serving one’s own needs (2008). The servant-leader asks questions and listens “receptively to what is being said” (Spears, 2002, p. 5), and is dedicated to the “growth of people” (p. 7). Servant leadership is how I want to lead and try to lead. I work to build relationships, take interest in people, and ask what I can do to help them be successful. When I speak to others, I let them know I am here to serve the organization, and them. Spears writes “servant-leadership holds that the primary purpose of a business should be to create a positive impact on its employees and community” (p. 9).Southwest Airlines built its success with the servant leadership mindset. Founders, Rolling King and Herb Kelleher, wanted a different type of organization. They focused on love and fun and taking care of their employees (Muduli & Kaura, 2011). Southwest’s career website is evidence of their servant leadership commitment. The company promise is “Southwest ® will provide a stable work environment with equal opportunity for learning and personal growth. Employees will be provided the same concern, respect, and caring attitude within the organization that they are expected to share externally with every Southwest Customer” (Southwest Airlines, 2021). By taking care of employees, Southwest understands their employees will take care of customers.Servant leaders truly care about their employees. It is a people-first mindset characterized by behaviors such as listening first, empathy, healing, stewardship (serving others), commitment to the growth of others, and building community (Spears, 1998). This type of commitment to others not only transforms followers by helping them grow and develop but also transforms the organization’s culture into one of servant leadership. Liden, Wayne, Liao & Meuser (2014) found that “Modeling of servant leadership occurs among followers as a result of the qualities that comprise servant leadership and the leader’s encouragement” (p. 1445).Looking again at Southwest Airlines, through servant leadership, they have created a culture of servant leadership. This culture has led to empowered employees who take care of customers, has lower costs because employees are more productive, and happy customers who return for the on-time and fun service (Muduli & Kaura, 2011).Greenleaf, R. K. (2008). The servant as leader. The Greenleaf Center for Servant Leadership.Liden, R., Wayne, S., Liao, C., Meuser, J. (2014). Servant leadership and serving culture: Influence on individual and unit performance. Academy of Management Journal 57(5). 1434-1452.Muduli, A., Kaura, V. (2011). Southwest Airlines Success: A case study analysis. Management Edge 4(2). 115-118.Schwarz, G., Newman, A., Cooper, B., Eva, N. (2016). Servant leadership and follower job performance: The mediating effect of public service motivation. Public Administration 94(4). 1025-1041.Southwest Careers. https://careers.southwestair.com/ (2021).Spears, L. (2002). Introduction: Tracing the past, present, and future of servant-leadership. In L. C. Spears & M. Lawrence (Eds.), Focus on leadership: Servant leadership for the 21st century. (pp. 1-16). John Wiley & Sons, Inc.Spears, L. (1998). Introduction. In Greenleaf, R. The power of servant leadership. (pp. 1-15). Berrett-Koehler drafters, Inc.5. Anthony Being a servant leader is directly supported by the growth and development of individuals and assists with the embracement of a particular vision of an organization and or group that the leader currently belongs to. Servant leadership is about serving others as a leader “what can I do for you?” It is also based on the notion to motivate followers and focus less on their own personal needs and put focus or emphasis mostly on the followers’ needs (Liden, Wayne, Chenwei, & Meuser, 2014, p. 1).My thought toward “Servant Leadership” is mainly about humanity. We all serve someone even if it is a higher being, so if individuals (followers/leaders) give support and service to those members they lead; individuals or groups will sacrifice more because the leaders took the time to serve them first. It is okay to lead by example and reap the fruits of your labor as a leader as long as its not on the expense of others. Coetzer, Bussin & Geldenhuys, (2017) all researched the topic of servant leadership’s function and discovered that without a shadow of doubt, servant leadership posseses positive effects on a follower’s role and individual development along with motivating individual creativity (Coetzer et al., 2017, p. 11). By fostering a climate of caring for others creates and cutlitivates a productive environment. Therefore, servant leaders motivate fellowship in an organization that helps communication and job satisfaction and employee retention. Reference: Coetzer, M. F., Bussin, M., & Geldenhuys, M. (2017). The Functions of a Servant Leader. Administrative Sciences (2076-3387), 7(1), 1-32. https://doi.org/10.3390/admsci7010005Liden, R. C., Wayne, S. J., Chenwei, L., & Meuser, J. D. (2014). Servant Leadership and Serving Culture: Influence on Individual and Unit Performance. Academy Of Management Journal, 57(5), 1434-1452.6. Jack Respond to all three questions supporting each with specific example.Why isn’t Servant Leadership a theory or formula for leadership success but a mindset – a way of being as a leader?According to Robert Greenleaf, a great leader is a servant first. What does this mean to you, and what contemporary leaders exhibit this way of leading?How does or could Servant Leadership transform the follower, the leader, and the organization? Be specificServant leadership is more of a mindset than a theory or formula, “servant leadership emphasizes that leaders be attentive to the concerns of their followers, empathize with them, and nurture them” (Northouse, 2019). Taking this definition at face value, there is no set philosophy that will deal with each follower individually. A true servant leader is a servant leader at all times. Constantly using this as a way of life to truly reach and tap into the true potential of those whom the leader is placed in charge. It is more a way of life or a grooming and cultivating of talent of the leader’s followers. “The servant leader is servant first – as Leo is portrayed. It begins with the natural feeling that one wants to serve, to serve first” (Greenleaf, 2015). Greenleaf basically means that leading comes second to the desire to serve those placed below you. Martin Luther King comes to mind when thinking about a servant leader. MLK was there to serve those below him and utilized his platform to uplift his followers, to become servant leaders themselves.Servant leaders are different in that they place the needs to the followers and the organization before their own needs. By doing so they are creating future leaders. “Servant leaders are ethical and lead in ways that serve the greater good of the organization, community, and society at large” (Northouse, 2019). By doing so the growth of personnel in the organization is reciprocal and will have a positive effect and benefit the organization.ReferenceGreenleaf, R. K. (2015). The servant as leader. Westfield, IN: The Greenleaf Center for Servant Leadership.Northouse, P. G. (2019). Leadership: Theory and Practice. (8th ed.). Los Angeles: SAGE Publications
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