Project Management Triangle

Welcome to Project
Management
Essentials
Topic: The Project Management Triangle
Today’s Agenda
Quick Recap of Previous Week’s Topic (Problem Solving & Decision Making)
Understanding the Project Management Triangle & Implications
Managing Constraints within a Project
• Group Activity: Video (Airbus A380)
BREAK
Appraising the Impact of Change on Projects
• Individual Activity: Highlighting Project Failures
• Individual Activity: Application of Change Management Models
Review of Apply Activity
Recap, Q&A, Discussion
Next steps
Previous Week Recap – Problem
Solving and Decision Making
Identifying and critically evaluating key project
stakeholders
Constructing a stakeholder influence map
Critically evaluating benefits to successful
stakeholder management
Managing stakeholders within a complex environment

Today’s Learning
Outcomes
Understand the project management triangle and its
implications to the project
Manage the constraints within a standard project
Appraise the impact of change on projects

The Project
Management Triangle

What is the project management triangle?
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Scope
The project scope refers to the work
that must be completed in order to
meet all project deliverables. (Gido, et
al, 2018
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under
CC BY-SA
Quality
Quality features should be designed at
the start of the project
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BY-NC

Time (Schedule)
• All projects have a timetable or project schedule that
reflects each activity and when it should start and finish in
order to meet the project completion date. (Gido et al,
2018)
• The Work Breakdown Structure (WBS) and the
information contained in the WBS is used to populate a
chart which displays tasks and time.
This Photo by Unknown Author is licensed under CC
BY-SA-NC

Work Breakdown Structure
A WBS is defined by Gido et al (p112,2017) as a “…deliverable-oriented
hierarchical decomposition of the project work scope into work
packages that produce project deliverables”
A hierarchical outline (or graphical map) that identifies all the products
and work elements involved in a project.

Work Breakdown Structure
PROJECT
SUB- PROJECT
KEY DELIVERABLE
WORK PACKAGE

Work Breakdown Structure – example
• An offshore oil production platform – an
incredibly complex engineering project
– impossible to understand and design
by any one person.
• But feasible if it is broken down using a
WBS

Work Breakdown Structure – example
First, the platform is broken down into
five main modules:
A – Jacket
B – Cellar Deck
C – Accommodation and Heli-deck
D – Process and utilities modules
E – Drilling, derrick and flare boom
Easier to understand ?

Work Breakdown Structure – example
Second, each module is broken down into
sub-components
B – Cellar deck consists of
Structural steelwork
Power generation
Seawater intake system
Fire control system
Lifeboats
Becoming easier to manage
Now each component can be regarded as a
work package

Coding the WBS with logical numbers
Defines:
• Levels and elements of the WBS
• Organization elements
• Work packages
• Budget and cost information
• Allows reports to be consolidated at any
level in the organization structure

Coding the WBS with logical numbers
Schedule (Gantt Charts)
• Shows activities (tasks or events) displayed against time
Source: https://www.gantt.com/ – accessed 3/11/20
Cost (Budget)
• This is the cost which the project sponsor or
customer has agreed to pay for acceptable
project delivery.
• The costs are estimated based on the
quantities of resources required to complete the
project.
• This may include people, materials, supplies,
equipment, fees of subcontractors, service
providers and consultants who may perform
some of the project tasks. (Gido et al, 2017).

Managing Project Constraints
Project Constraints
Group Activity: Airbus A380
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Break Time – 15 minutes
Critical Path Analysis
• The critical path can be defined by as “A sequence of
all activities through a precedence network from start
to finish, the sum of whose durations determines the
overall duration”. (APM 2020 p211)
• Project managers can use the method of “Critical Path
Analysis” to determine the overall duration of the
identified work based on estimates and logical
dependencies (APM, 2020)
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Critical Path Analysis
IT Project Management, Third Edition (Schwalbe, 2015) Chapter 6
Critical Path Analysis
IT Project Management, Third Edition (Schwalbe, 2015) Chapter 6
Appraising the Impact of
Change on Projects

Appraising Change
• What do we mean by change in a project management
context?
• Several variables can affect change in projects
• Change control systems need to be in place
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Models of Change
• Emergent
• Participative
• Political

Models of Change
• Lewin (1947)
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licensed under
CC BY-SA
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by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY
Models of Change
• Lewin (1947)
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Models of Change
• Kotter(1996)
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by Unknown Author is licensed under CC BY-SA-NC
Individual: Case Study
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Leading Positive Change
Whetton & Cameron (1996)
• Establish a climate of positivity
• Creating readiness for change
• Articulating a vision of abundance
• Generating commitment to the vision
• Fostering positive change
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Individual: Case Study
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Review of Apply
Activity

Apply Activity Instructions
Assessment -Task 3 (LO2): – The Project Management Triangle (12 Marks)
For your assignment you will act in the role of a Project Consultant where you are required to develop a project
report for the Smart City OS project (case study provided) by leveraging on the techniques and concepts you
have covered in the module.
Critically discuss the importance of the various project triangle parameters that will need to be managed by the
Smart City OS project manager over the course of the project, and how they may inter-relate to each other.
Discuss the impact of possible changes to this project. Support your arguments with academic literature and
references to other similar real projects.
Discussion Forum (100 words)
Answer the following questions in the discussion forum and comment the answers of your peers (comment on at
least one answer):
What is the project management triangle and what are some of the ways in which project managers can
manage constraints within a project? (max 50 words)
What are some of the impacts of change on projects and how do we appraise them? (max 50 words)

Recap, Q&A,
Discussion

Key Takeaways
You should be now be able to:
• Have confidence with the Module structure
• Understand the project management triangle
and its implications to the project
• Manager the constraints within a standard
project
• Appraise the impact of change on projects

Next Steps
• Review this topic
• Go through the Preparation and Apply part of this week (if
not done yet)
• Go through the Consolidation part of this week
• Go through the Preparation and Apply part of next week
Prepare Task 3 of your Assessment
• See you next week same time!

Assignment status: Already Solved By Our Experts

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