Teamwork

Welcome to Project
Management
Essentials
Topic: Teamwork
Today’s Agenda
Quick Recap of Previous Week’s Topic (Conflicts and Negotiation)
Analyse how teams contribute to organisational effectiveness
• Individual Activity – Belbin Team Roles
Develop behaviours which support teamwork in projects
• Group Activity: Case Study: Why good projects fail anyway
BREAK
Critically evaluate ways to enhance the effectiveness of the project team
Appraise how teams contribute to an effective project
• Group Activity: The value of diversity in project management
Review of Apply Activity
Recap, Q&A, Discussion
Next steps
Previous Week Recap – Conflicts and
Negotiation
Understand conflict management within the project
structure
Evaluate conflict management techniques in project
management
Appraise conflict resolution strategies
Judge different negotiation skills in different contexts
Develop a negotiation strategy

Today’s Learning Outcomes
Analyse how teams contribute to organisational
effectiveness
Develop behaviours which support teamwork in projects
Critically evaluate ways to enhance the effectiveness of
the project team
Appraise how teams contribute to an effective project

Analyse how teams
contribute to
organisational
effectiveness

Teams and organisational
effectiveness
• Organisations use teams as a strategy
• Teams dramatically increase organisational
performance
• Teams are dynamic
• Individuals perform different roles within a
team
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Belbin Team Roles
• Meredith Belbin (1981) – notable theorist on how
individuals perform in teams
• Conclusion that people behave in one of 9 different
ways
• Teams appear to be balanced when a number of
roles are represented
• Belbin did not suggest that you have to have all 9
roles in teams
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Belbin Team Roles
Individual: Belbin Team Roles
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Tuckman (1977)
Research into Teams
• Managers must understand the
various roles
• Managers must understand the
different stages of team
development
• Both must be understood to
maximise team performance and
organisational effectiveness
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How do we develop
behaviours which
support teamwork in
projects?

Project Teams and Tuckman’s model
Project Kick Off Meeting
• Welcome and Introductions
• Project Overview
• Roles and Responsibilities
• Processes and Procedures
• Expectations
• Closing Comments
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Critically evaluate
ways to enhance the
effectiveness of the
project team

Leadership in Projects
• Trait
• Behavioural
• Contingency (Situational)
• Transformational
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Contingency Theories of Leadership
• Vroom & Yetton (1973)
• Tannenbaum & Schmidt (1973)
• House Path Goal Theory (1974)
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Tannenbaum & Schmidt (1973)
House’s path-goal model
• Directive
• Supportive
• Achievement Orientated
• Participative
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Motivation in Projects
• Encouraged via recognition of
individuals and project team
• Teams should not be overmanaged
• Project managers do not take credit for
the achievements of others
• Project manager must foster an
environment of trust and camaraderie
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Empowerment in Projects
• Project team should have both
ownership and control over their work
• Provides freedom for people to do what
they want to do not getting them to do
what you want them to do
• Empowerment means to enable
• Fosters mutual trust and commitment
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Group Activity: Case Study – Why good
projects fail anyway

Break Time – 15 minutes
Appraise how teams
contribute to an
effective project

Five main characteristics associated with
effective project teams (Gido et al, 2018)
• Clear understanding of the project objective
• Clear expectations of roles and responsibilities
• Results orientation
• High degree of co-operation and collaboration
• High level of trust
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Barriers to team effectiveness
(Gido et al, 2018)
• Unclear vision and objective
• Unclear definition of roles and responsibilities
• Lack of project structure
• Lack of commitment
• Poor communication
• Poor leadership
• Turnover of project team members
• Dysfunctional behaviour
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Team Killers (Naylor, 2004)
• False consensus
• Unresolved overt conflict
• Underground conflict
• Not reaching closure
• Calcification
• Uneven participation
• Unaccountable to others
• Customer forgotten
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Diversity and Inclusion
• Projects often include team members from
diverse backgrounds
• Unique skill sets
• Differences valued as a strength
• Teams are temporary
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Dimensions of Diversity (Gido et al, 2018)
• Age or generation
• Appearance
• Ethnicity or ancestry
• Gender
• Health
• Job Status
• Marital or parental status
• Race
• Religious affiliation
• Sexual identity or gender expression
• Political affiliation
• Personal habits and interests
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Diversity and Inclusion
• Stereotyping and assumptions should be
avoided
• People should feel they can be themselves at
work
• Ideas and respectful challenges are
encouraged
• Differences are understood and welcomed
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Group Activity: The value of diversity in
project management

Review of Apply
Activity

Apply Activity Instructions
Assessment -Task 7 (LO3): – Teamwork (12 Marks)
Critically discuss what the project manager can do to build a highly successful team for the Smart
City OS project. In particular focus on the importance of how a diverse team can increase project
performance. Critically reflect on what actions the project manager can take to build a diverse
team for the Smart City OS project, and what are some of the challenges of working in diverse
teams
Discussion Forum (100 words)
Answer the following questions in the discussion forum and comment the answers of your peers (comment on at
least one answer):
1. Why is it important for project managers to understand the different stages of team development?
(max 50 words)
2. Explain what leaderships styles are considered useful for project managers and why? (max 50
words)

Recap, Q&A,
Discussion

Key Takeaways
You should be now be able to:
• Analyse how teams contribute to
organisational effectiveness
• Develop behaviours which support teamwork
in projects
• Critically evaluate ways to enhance the
effectiveness of the project team
• Appraise how teams contribute to an effective
project

Next Steps
• Review this topic
• Go through the Preparation and Apply part of this week (if
not done yet)
• Go through the Consolidation part of this week
• Go through the Preparation and Apply part of next week
Prepare Task 7 of your Assessment
• See you next week same time!

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