# transmission of data

503

VISHAL DAVE (MIT200980)

Q-1

(a)

– As per my knowledge network is responsible for the transmission of data from one device to another device. Maybe data can be corrupted during transmission. For communication, errors must be detected and corrected. In addition to this, error control is the process of detecting and correcting both the bit level and packet-level errors.

Basically, there are two types of errors.

1. Lost frame: This frame occurs when the frame does not arrive to the destination.

2.Damaged frame: This frame occurs when the recognizable frame is arrived to the destinations with little bit error contains.

Also, the error detection happened with the using sequence number, parity checks and Cyclic Redundancy Check (CRC) process.

Error control process has two components such as Error detection and Error correction.

Here is the example of error detection:

11010011101100 000 right padded by 3 bits

1011 it is a divisor

01100011101100 000 results are that the first four is XOR

1011

00111011101100 000

1011

00010111101100 000

1011

00000001101100 000 divisor moves over to align with the next 1 in the dividend

1011

00000000110100 000

1011

00000000011000 000

1011

00000000001110 000

1011

00000000000101 000

101 1

—————–

00000000000000 100 remainders (3 bits). Here division algorithm stops because the dividend is equal to zero.

(b)

– in the question the decimal value for the given binary data 100000000 is 256.

so, here the X=56

as per the calculation of the decimal to binary the binary value for X is 111000.

The value of the divisor given is 10001. So, by adding four zeros at the end of the X data we get X=1110000000.

For calculating the CRC,

So, The 10001|1110000000|111011

10001

______

11010

10001

_______

11100

10001

______

11100

10001

_______

11010

10001

________

1011

(c)

– we can prove that the frame is error free by Using hamming code at the receiver side. By using this code, we can able to calculate the not only the maximum but also the minimum error we can find. This hamming code is used as the error detection. This hamming code not only the uses for the detection of the error but also used for the error checker and resolver or detection. For error detection first receiver side the recalculation of incoming essential messages is mandatory for error identify and detection process.

Below I have used hamming coding with the decoding messages,

• Be First we need to count number of redundant bits. We need to count this for the use formula of 2p ≥ n +p +1. (where, P is the number of redundant bits). Apart from that, positioning the all-redundant bits properly. After that we need to check the parity for the error frame.
• By this process the sender side the all messages or the data is encrypted with the parity. So, after adding message it decodes the message into the receiver side and shows that there is not any error available

Below I have used the example of receiver side decoding with zero frame error.

11010111/ 101 = 11101

101

——-

111

101

——-

100

101

——-

111

101

———-

101

101

————

00

It shows here 00 that means in the frame not available any error in message.

Q-2

(a)

– As per my understanding, the network address is used for the identifying the network or internet. Apart from that, it has capability to give the information of the various network address along with the valid hosts. The subnetting is known as the dividing the network into the small networks. So, each network is known as the subnet. Subnetting is mostly used into the addressing the classless or we can say that classless addressing. Host Id bits used as the classful ip address bits. Apart from that, by applying the IP address to the bitmask we need to use the symbol like /.

– In the process of subnetting different values calculated such as the subnet, subnet address, broadcast ID, and number of hosts per ID. We can take an example of it like, the IP address is 170.16.0.0/25 and we are able to find a various number of subnets and hosts per subnet.

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– It is a class B address so as per my understanding the number of subnets is 512 and it is calculated with this formula like 2(25-16).

– For first subnet address is the 0.0 while the first host id is the 0.1 and last host id = 0.126and the broadcast address of this is 0.127

(b)

– in the question Given the IP address is 192.168.10.0/26

So as per the above IP address the class is C.

Where we can say that 24 bits are used for the network part and 8 bits are for the host part.

Apart from that in this given network address, 2 bits from the host part are used for the subnet, and the where the 6 bits are for the host.

So, by considering the 2 bits there will be 2^2=4 subnets, and number. of usable hosts in each subnet will be 2^6-2=62 hosts.

The subnet address of the 1st subnet is 192.168.10.0

The host address range is 192.168.10.1 to 192.168.10.62

The broadcast address is 192.168.10.63

1. The IP address of the second subnet is 192.168.10.64
1. The number of valid hosts is 62 hosts since 2^6-2=64-2=62.
1. The usable IP address range is 192.168.10.65 to 192.168.10.126
1. The broadcast address for second subnet is 193168.10.127

Q-3

(a)

– The MAC is known as the medium access control. It is the data communication protocol sub-layer. this MAC is the sub-layer of the Data link layer of the OSI model. This MAC is used in a computer network for communications between two different networking devices. It controlling the access of the transmission medium of the network. In the MAC transmission frame in used tow formats such as a link frame which is known as the LLC protocol data unit (PDU). Apart from that, PDU enclosed in MAC frame these both formats involved. The IEEE distributes data link later of OSI layer into two layers. The above is used for the logical link control and the second one down is for the MAC.

MAC layer has various protocols available such as ALOHA, CSMA (carrier sensed multiple access), CSMA/CD (Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Detection), Ethernet.

(b)

– CSMA/CD known as Multiple Access/Collision Detection in Carrier Sense, with an extension of the CSMA protocol being collision detection. In addition, it makes sense to break down each component of the word to grasp how CSMA/CD operates:

1. Carrier sense (CS):

The identification of the carrier state means that all network members validate that the medium is actually open. Only then can the protocol begin data transmission.

2.Multiple access (MA):

A transmission medium is shared by multiple users (computers linked to the network).

3.Collision detection (CD):

The detection of collisions is an extension of the original protocol which governs how to act in the event of colliding data packets.

CSMA/CD Process or mechanism:

• CSMA/CD is a process of some sections. Basically, it is part of a normal group discussion which must be done one by one because if everyone is speaking at once, then it should be so confusing to understand. We do not have to mix up the conversation while doing the CSMA/CD process.
• The procedure for CSMA/CD is somewhat equal.
• Next, the station controls the means of transmission. The surveillance will continue as long as this is dealt with. The station can send a data packet only when the medium is open and for a certain duration (in interframe spacing).
• During this, to see if it senses any data collisions, the transmitter continues to watch the transmitting medium. If at the end of the transmission, no other individual attempts to transmit his data through the medium and no collision occurs, the transmission has been a success.

Collisions:

• The station tests cumulatively whether the broadcast signal is similar to that on the transmitting medium to detect whether a collision has happened. If this is not the case, another station concurrently performs a relay and falsifies the signal on the bus.
• In this case, the network size also improved the possibility of collisions. While, it means not only participants but the transmission length matter as well. A collision domain is the kind of portion of a network in which the communication medium is exchanged and altered by the by participants. Via the CSMA/CD process, participants gain entry.
• The Error signals must hit all members in the collision domain within a certain time for CSMA/CD to work: a data set runs from one end of the domain to the other, where there might be a collision.
• Before it is ready for full transmission of the data packet, the resulting signal must reach the first station. Otherwise, the station would not know that the data transmitted is already corrupted and that the transmission is deemed to be effective while the data packet is missing.
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(c)

– As per my thinking, User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is a communications protocol that facilitates the exchange of messages between computing devices in a network. Moreover, it’s an alternative to the transmission control protocol (TCP). In a network that uses the Internet Protocol (IP), it is sometimes referred to as UDP/IP.

Moreover, UDP is used when acknowledgment of data does not hold any significance. And it is a good protocol for data flowing in one direction. While it is simple and suitable for query-based communications. Also, UDP is not connection-oriented. In addition, it does not provide a congestion control mechanism.

For instance, it uses DNS streaming media applications such as movies. Also, it uses for online multiplayer games.

Q-4

(a)

– The circuit switching is the kind of method to implementing the telecommunication network between the two various nodes as a communication channel or the circuit switching is used in the network for communication between the one device to the other devices. The communication via the circuit switching identify that the communication happens with the specific paths between tow destinations. In this circuit switching path is connected sequence of links of the two nodes. Also, in this each physical link or a channel is used as the connection. We can consider the telephone network as an example of the circuit switching. In which the cable is used as the data transfer over the one destination through the other destination. Where is path is fixed through the entire network.

Another example of the circuit switching is the ATM. Where the ATM I also used not only the circuit switching but also use the packet switching techniques.

– The communication happed with the three various phases in the circuit switching which I have mentioned below,

Circuit establishment: in this any signal can be transmitted as station to station the circuit must be developed before the process.

Data transfer: which includes the data type like data with the voice, binary data and also the digital data.

Circuit disconnects: this phase is used after the data transferred and the connections is terminated.

The advantage of the circuit switching is the is is the compatible with the voice. Also, there is not any need of the user training and any protocol for handle the traffic.

(b)

– The IMAP is knowing as the internet message access protocol. Which is the defined by the RFC 3501. This IMAP provides the much features and functionality compare to the POP model. So, we can say that the internet message access protocol has the more significance rather than the POP model.

– In IMAP clients has multiple remote mailboxes. By which the message is able t retrieved. Also, in tis IMAP clients have some important criteria to downloading the various messages. This IMAP has capability to keeps messages on the various servers and create the replicates copies of it and send to the clients. Apart from that it has also features like client’s ca easily make the changes on the network such as during the connected and disconnected.

-As per my knowledge, unlike POP, IMAP allows you to access, organize, read, and sort your email messages without having to download them first. As a result, IMAP is very fast and efficient. In addition, the server also keeps a record of all of the messages that you send, allowing you to access your sent messages from anywhere.

– so, the IMAP has the more features compare to POP. we can say that the IMAP has more significance.

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(c)

– Presence service is the kind of network service. Which accepts, stores and distributes the presence essential information. Also, it may be implemented as a kind of single server or also say that have an internal structure which contains the multiple servers and also with the proxy.

– Basically, the little icon in the instant messaging (IM) buddy list that indicates someone is online and has evolved to an underlying network service tapped by applications and corporate communication services containing telephonic. Apart from that, is becoming essential to the way employees collaborate and communicate. Also, real-time communications, messaging and routing infrastructure that supports collaborative applications for user-to-user interaction as well as communication between various applications and users. But, it supports application-to-application integration, where the presence infrastructure is used to announce which applications are up.

Here I have mentioned the the structure of Presence Service:

Presentity (presence entity): It provides presence information to a presence service.

Also, not usually located within the presence service. Moreover, Initiates changes in the presence of information, which is distributed by the presence service.

Watcher:

Requests presence information about a presentity or watcher information about a watcher from the presence service. As well as consists of information about watchers that have received presence information about a particular presentity within a particular recent span of time such as Fetcher, Poller, Subscriber.

Q-5

(a) Below I have mentioned the requirements for this network,

– HARDWARE SOFTWARE:

1. 1 Hubs 1. Must use Windows 10 platform
2. 7 Routers 2. packet tracer 5.3.3 for network
3. 8 Switches
4. various types of Cables contain.
5. 15 PCs
6. 15 keyboard and 15 mouce.
7. 2 Wireless Router
8. system must have 1 GB Ram for creating network. Also need Hard disk 80 GB or of available memo in each pc.

(b)

– By understanding the network requirement, I will use approaches like I will create some documents for developing the network. After that I will establish the relation between the various branches. After creating the final network, I will apply the service level agreements. Which help in future work. So basically I would app the these approaches into the network

(c)

(d)

Q-6

(a)

– As per my opinion, Recently, Technology has been developing quickly. Due to technology improvements like better reliable internet facility like Wi-Fi, LAN networks have allowed university and college student to study more efficiently and the internet provide more flexibility to the student where they can study from anywhere any time. Along with its users have access to mobile devices like laptops, smartphones, etc. Due to a lot of improvement in computer hardware teaching methods are evolving faster and reliable.

(b)

– As per my opinion, Remote learning is being accepted on a large scale by education institute. At the moment due to the COVID-19 Pandemic student and teachers are not able to study physically in colleges. But due to the availability of reliable internet and mobile devices like laptop and smartphones have made e-learning more reliable where a student can learn from anywhere and anytime. And Teachers are also able to teach more efficiently and analyze each student’s academic performance and maintain academic integrity in the education sector effectively.

(c)

– As per my opinion, nowadays due to the availability of cost-effective technology, most of the college is able to provide many courses option to choose from for students. Due to many students are attending college and ever students have some type of mobile device to access internet facilities in colleges, and this high demand for connectivity to the college Wi-Fi where modem is not able to handle this much of traffic and create Wi-Fi Drop-outs in the college network.

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