Making decisions about large, complex engineered systems can be very difficult. Suppose that the University of Gnomon leadership (like the Dean of the College of Engineering or the Provost) asked for help in measuring the quality of instruction from professors in the classroom. Currently the University does end-of-course surveys from students, asking questions about the class. The thought here is that if the student feels like he/she has really learned a lot from the class, then the survey results should indicate that and should therefore be relatively correlated to quality instruction from the teacher. However, remember that correlation doesn’t always mean causation, so student surveys could be misleading. For example, if I never graded homework, gave group tests, graded easily, and gave everyone an “A,” then I may get outstanding reviews on the survey. But in reality, many of you may not have learned a thing in the class. But overall, though, surveys are probably relatively reflective of quality instruction. Explain two other ways you think the University of Dayton could measure the quality of instruction from professors in the classroom. Discuss some pros and cons associated with your measurement, and explain why you think these would help University leadership make better decisions about teachers and classes.
10TECHNOLOGYFOCUSwww.insuranceday.com| Wednesday 18 April 2012Metrics forindustrystandardsYou can measure anythingThere is one unproductiveand pervasive managementmyth holdingorganisations back: thebelief some of the most importantfactors in the organisation arebeyond measurement.Today’s businesses are likely tocite quality, reputation or agility astheir key strategic drivers – all supposedlyimpossible to measure.Every day, decision-makerscommit their organisations toinvestments, structures and marketsvia decisions that supposedlyserve these so-called intangiblequalities yet include no relevantinformation. However, anythingthat matters can be measured.What measurement meansA measurement is a quantitativereduction in uncertainty based onobservation. It does not have toreduce uncertainty to zero.Sometimes even a marginalreduction in uncertainty is helpfulto decision-makers. Furthermore,major reductions in uncertaintycan be obtained by asking somesimple questions.In a famous example, the Nobelprize-winning scientist EnricoFermi asked his Chicago studentsto estimate the number of pianotuners in the city.He showed them by breaking theproblem down into chunks aboutwhich they could make reasonableestimates, they could come up witha rough estimate. The studentswould come up with answers in therange of, say, 20 to 200, and Fermiwould reveal the answer was 45. Sothey were not far wrong – muchcloser than they guessed. We knowmore than we think we do.The ’rule of five’“We don’t have the data” is a commonreason given for perceivedimmeasurability. But if the greatscientists of history were stumpedbythelackofafullypopulateddatabase,wewouldnothavegotfar.So think about how you canactively collect just a random sampleof data.Consider a contemporary classicof “soft” goals: customer experience.One way to measure this is toask five random customers whatthey think of your service.Not five million. Just five.Here’s how the “rule of five”works. Say you want to considertelecommuting for your business.Make five random calls to the staff.Ask them how long their commuteis. Say you get the values 30,60, 45, 80 and 60 minutes. Take thehighest and lowest numbers in thesample, which are 30 and 80. Now,there is a 93.7% chance the medianof the entire workforce is betweenthose two numbers.Measurement assumptionsThere are four main reasons whyso-called intangibles remain unmeasured.First, people assumetheir problem is unique. But it ismuch more likely your problemhas been solved before, perhaps inanother industry. This is whybenchmarkinghassuchapowerfuleffect on businesses: it is an opportunityto transfer solutions acrossorganisational boundaries.Second, people think they do nothave the required data. However,organisations record all kinds ofdata that can be relevant to yourneeds. Executives have powerfultools to extract data, they just needto ask the questions.Third,youneedfarlessdatathanyou think. The rule of five reallyworks, even though it is counterintuitive– even to some statisticians.You do not need lots of data,but relevant data. When you knownothing, you do not need muchadditional data to tell you somethingyou did not know before.And last, new sources of data aremuch more accessible than youthink. Assume there is a simplemeans of measurement you canimplement economically andquickly. It is more a matter ofresourcefulness than any realobstacle of measurement.Measuring what we meanOne of the most powerful effects ofchanging our attitude to so-calledintangibles is the new light cast onour business goals. By looking formeaningful measures, we improveour understanding of the goals aswellasmakingthemmoreachievable.Take IT security, for example.Security is one of those things everyonewants lots of, but few knowhow to measure.When I work through the conceptof security with organisations,they invariably identify risk withsome specific list of events which,in turn, cause loss of data, legal liabilities,loss of productivity andmore. These effects all have magnitudesthat can be estimated.For some reason, the “branddamage” effect of a security breachis seen to be particularly hardto measure.But,bydefinition,everyinstanceof brand damage in your industryis public knowledge and isreflected in stock prices, marketshare or legal cases. Everything isobservable once it is defined.There is more to measurementthan I can present here, but I hope Ihave convinced you that decisionmakersdo not have to fly blind.nDouglas Hubbard is president ofHubbard Decision Researchand his website iswww.hubbardresearch.comDouglas Hubbard,presidentHubbard DecisionResearchOne of the most striking books ofthe past few years is Douglas Hubbard’sHow to Measure Anything:Finding the Value of Intangibles inBusiness. It is one of those booksthat makes you see the world differentlyanditchtoputitsmessageintopractice.Hubbardintroduceshis ideas in the piece opposite, butI urge you to read the book.The insurance industry is builton the practices Hubbarddescribes. Insurance createsand applies measures for risk, akey intangible.Whenevertheindustryencountersa new class of risk, it inventsan elegant means of measuring it.But we do not seem to apply thesame kind of thinking in our information-managementpractices.Historically, the focus ofACORD has been on enabling theinformationflowbetweenorganisations,but ACORD standardshave always played a significantrole in systems integration anddata management.So we are embarking on aresearch effort to improve themetrics we have in place todayand also provide new metrics onindustry standards for decisionmakers.I see this aspect of ourwork growing in importance asinformation specialists continueto improve their business valueand amplify the power of data toenergise the business.Gregory Maciag can be reached email@example.com People think they donot have the requireddata. However,organisations record allkinds of data that can berelevant to your needs.Executives havepowerful tools to extractdata, they just need toask the questions
http://mypaperwriter.net/. 100% Original ContentUncategorizedReligions of the worldNovember 7, 2015 Published by: admin http://mypaperwriter.net/. 100% Original ContentEach question requires 200 words.
1.) In Hinduism there are multitudes of gods. How does the idea of the divine differ within Hinduism?
2.) What are some of the ways in which Hindus seek release (moksha) from the wheel of rebirth (samsara)? Is there any particular way that appeals more to you? What is it and why does it have appeal?
http://mypaperwriter.net/. 100% Original ContentUncategorizedDatabase and Presentation OverviewNovember 7, 2015 Published by: admin http://mypaperwriter.net/. 100% Original ContentYour team has been asked by a small retail client, SmallMart, to create the underlying database for a new point of sale (POS) system. You will be going through the Database Development Life Cycle, beginning with the analysis of requirements and ending with the creation of a physical database, the creation of queries that will be used in reporting, and a presentation that will be delivered to the CEO of SmallMart. Week Four Deliverable: Include the following specifications in your database: The POS database must support the following subsystems: Invoicing, Inventory Management, Customer Management, and Employee Management. Each of these subsystems must include a primary key and at least five different attributes using appropriate data types and the overall database must be normalized to at least the 3rd Normal Form. Foreign keys must be set up with constraints and relationships established between entities. The database will need to be populated with test data. At least ten records for each subsystem. At least four queries must be created to provide management insight into each subsystem. Two of these queries must join data from one or more other entities. Include the following specifications in your presentation: The presentation to the CEO should include information on the database development life cycle which includes: An ERD. How you approached normalization. Any decisions that were made around keys, data types, constraints, etc. Considerations that were made around the creation of the physical database The value of queries included in the project. Record audio speaker notes that are attached to the presentation. The presentation should be 7- to 10-slides long and delivered in 10 minutes. Remember to include a slide to cite your references. Note: The scripts for the database and the presentation are to be turned in during Week Four. Week Five Deliverable: Create a 5- to 7-slide Microsoft® PowerPoint® Presentation in which you explain the principles of database management and make recommendations for continued management of the database you created in your learning team project. Include at least 3 external sources as a part of your research. Note: The scripts for the database and the presentation are to be turned in during Week Five
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